Troy Oakes | Vision Times
The study, which was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, found agricultural chemicals are often used inefficiently on small farms, leading to financial losses and serious local, regional, and global pollution ranging from eutrophication (an excess of nutrients in bodies of water, often caused by run-off from the land) to particle pollution in the air and global warming.
The University of Melbourne and Zhejiang researcher Baojing Gu said: “In recent years, the Chinese government has made efforts to reduce excessive use of agricultural chemicals, but the effects have unfortunately been limited.
While economic growth has been associated with increasing farm size in other countries, in China this relationship has been distorted by land and migration policies, leading to the persistence of small farm size.”
The authors suggest that removing these distortions would decrease agricultural chemical use by 30-50 percent and the environmental impact of those chemicals by 50 percent while doubling the total income of all farmers including those who move to urban areas. Dr. Gu added: “Small farm size has proliferated in China, largely due to the misallocation of cropland and labor caused by the barriers to the movement of labor and the limits on transfer of cropland use rights.
“This contributes to the overuse of agricultural chemicals in a number of ways.
“Firstly, many technological innovations and modern management practices that reduce the use of agricultural chemicals are less effective on small farms due to the high costs of adoption.
People with larger farms typically have a better farming knowledge and management skills and so use agricultural chemicals more efficiently than farmers who are operating on a smaller scale.”
The study shows average farm size in China has changed very slowly despite the country’s strong economic growth and urbanisation. From the 1980s to 2000s, the country’s average farm size decreased and has increased slowly since the 2000s. This pattern differs suburbanization from other developed countries.
It also shows 98 percent of households that run farms own a farm measuring less than 2 hectares in China — a much higher proportion than in other world regions, even Africa. Professor Chen said: “The findings in our paper have far-reaching implications for many less-developed countries. While agriculture in less-developed countries, especially in some sub-Saharan African countries, is currently suffering from a deficit in agricultural chemicals, their availability will increase with economic growth.
“If nothing is done to address the misallocation of land, labor, and capital in agriculture in these countries, they will face the same problems and implications for health and the environment that Chinese agriculture has experienced for the past few decades.”
Provided by: University of Melbourne